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Fundamentals of Metallurgy by Seshadri Seetharaman - Free Download PDF -





Descriptions of high-temperature metallurgical processes
  • Introduction
  • Reactions involving gases and solids
  • Reactions involving liquid phases 
  • Casting processes 
  • Thermomechanical processes
  • References 
  • Appendix: notation 

Thermodynamic aspects of metals processing 
  • Introduction 
  • Basic concepts in thermodynamics 
  • Chemical equilibrium 
  • Unary and multicomponent equilibria 
  • Thermodynamics of solutions 
  • Thermodynamics of multicomponent dilute solutions 
  • Modelling of metallic systems 
  • Thermodynamics of ionic melts 
  • Basics of electrochemical thermodynamics 
  • Conclusions 
  • Further reading 
  • References

Phase diagrams, phase transformations, and the prediction of metal properties 
  • Introduction 
  • Phase diagrams and potential diagrams 
  • Ternary phase diagrams 
  • Solidification in ternary systems and four-phase equilibria 
  • Examples of solidification behaviour from a phase diagramperspective 
  • Conclusions
  • References 

Measurement and estimation of physical properties of metals at high temperatures 
  • Introduction 
  • Factors affecting physical properties and their measurement 
  • Measurements and problems 
  • Fluid flow properties
  • Properties related to heat transfer
  • Properties related to mass transfer 
  • Estimating metal properties 
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Appendix A: calculation of structural parameters NBO/T and optical basicity
  • Appendix B: notation 

Transport phenomena and metals properties
  • Introduction
  • Mass transfer
  • Heat transfer
  • Fluid flow 
  • Further reading 
  • References 
  • Interfacial phenomena, metals processing and properties 
  • Introduction 
  • Fundamentals of the interface 
  • Interfacial properties of a metallurgical melts system 
  • Interfacial phenomena in relation to metallurgical processing 
  • Further reading 
  • References 

The kinetics of metallurgical reactions 
  • Introduction 
  • Fundamentals of heterogeneous kinetics 
  • Solid-state reactions 
  • Gas±solid reactions 
  • Liquid±liquid reactions 
  • Solid±liquid reactions 
  • Gas±liquid reactions 
  • Comprehensive process modeling 
  • References 
  • Appendix: notation 

Thermoanalyticalmethods in metals processing 
  • Introduction
  • Thermogravimetry (TG)
  • Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)
  • Evolved gas analysis (EGA) and detection (EGD) 
  • References 

Improving process design in steelmaking
  • Introduction 
  • Overview of process design 
  • Thermodynamics and mass balance 
  • Kinetics ± mass transfer and heat transfer 
  • Optimization of interfacial reactions 
  • Micro-modelling 
  • Conclusions 
  • References 

Solidification and steel casting 
  • Introduction 
  • Solidification fundamentals 
  • The growth of solids 
  • The casting of steels 
  • Conclusions 
  • Acknowledgements 
  • References 

Analysing metal working processes 
  • Introduction 
  • Work hardening 
  • Rate effects 
  • Interaction with phase transformations 
  • Examples of material behaviour during processing 
  • Development trends 
  • References 

Understanding and improving powder metallurgical processes 
  • Introduction 
  • Production processes for powders 
  • Forming processes towards near-net shape 
  • Conclusions 
  • References 

Improving steel making and steel properties 
  • Introduction 
  • Developing processes and properties with reference to market, energy, and environment 506
  • Optimization of processes to meet properties and productivity 
  • Economic optimization 537
  • Environmental optimization 
  • Future trends 
  • Further reading 
  • References 


Metallurgy refers to the science and technology of metals. The subject area can be considered as a combination of chemistry, physics and mechanics with special reference to metals. In later years, metallurgy has expanded into materials science and engineering encompassing metallic, ceramic and polymeric materials. Metallurgy is an ancient subject linked to the history of mankind. The development of civilisations from stone age, bronze age and iron age can be thought of as the ages of naturally available ceramic materials, followed by the discovery of copper that can be produced relatively easily and iron that needs higher temperatures to produce. These follow the pattern of the Ellingham diagram known to all metallurgists. Faraday introduced the concept of electrolysis which revolutionised metal production. Today, we are able to
produce highly reactive metals by electrolysis. The prime objective to produce metals and alloys is to have materials with
optimised properties. These properties are related to structure and thus, physical as well as mechanical properties form essential parts of metallurgy. Properties of metals and alloys enable the choice of materials in production engineering.
The book, Fundamentals of Metallurgy is a compilation of various aspects of metallurgy in different chapters, written by the most eminent scientists in the world today. These participants, despite their other commitments, have devoted
a great deal of time and energy for their contributions to make this book a success. Their dedication to the subject is admirable.

Metallurgical reactions take place either at high temperatures or in aqueous solutions. Reactions take place more rapidly at a higher temperature, and thus large-scale metal production is mostly done through high-temperature processes. Most metallurgical reactions occurring at high temperatures involve an interaction between a gas phase and condensed phases, which may be molten liquids or solids. In some cases, interactions between immiscible molten phases are important.
High-temperature metallurgical reactions involving molten phases are often carried out under the conditions of near equilibria among all the phases; other such reactions proceed under the control of interphase mass transfer with equilibria at interphase boundaries. Reactions involving gas±solid contact also often take place under the rate control of mass transfer with chemical equilibrium at the interface, but the chemical kinetics of the heterogeneous reactions are more often important in this case than those involving molten phases. Even in this case, mass transfer becomes  increasingly dominant as temperature increases. The solid phases undergo undesirable structural changes, such as fusion, sintering, and excessive reduction of internal porosity and surface area, as temperature becomes too high. Thus, gas±solid interactions are carried out in practice at the highest possible temperatures before these undesirable changes in the solid structure become damaging. In the case of high temperature oxidation, the structure of the product oxide determines the mass mtransport of gases and ions. The treatment of metals in their molten state, e.g. refining and alloying, involves reactions between the melt and a gas phase or a molten slag. Interfacial reaction kinetics, mass transport in the molten or gaseous phase becomes important. The production of metals and alloys almost always involves solidification, the rate of which is often controlled by the rate of heat transfer through the mold.

Smelting and converting

The term `smelting' has broad and narrow definitions. In the broadest sense, any metal production process that involves a molten stage is called `smelting', the word having its origin in the German word `schmelzen' ± to melt. Thus, aluminum smelting and iron smelting in addition to sulfide smelting would be included in this category. The next level of  definition is the overall process of producing primary metals from sulfide minerals by going through a molten stage. The narrowest definition is the first step of the two-step oxidation of sulfur and iron from sulfide minerals, mainly Cu and Ni, i.e., matte smelting or `mattemaking' as opposed to `converting' in which the matte is further oxidized, in the case of coppermaking, to produce metal. Thus, especially in copper- making, we talk about a `smelting' step and a `converting' step. The reason for doing it in two stages has largely to do with oxygen potentials in the two stages as well as heat production, the former in turn affecting the slag chemistry (magnetite formation, for example) and impurity behavior. If one goes all the way to metal in one step, much more of the impurities go into the metal, rather than the slag, and too much heat is produced. Thus, in the first stage ± the `smelting step', as much iron, sulfur and harmful impurities as possible are removed into the large amount of slag formed in that stage, and the matte is separated and treated in a subsequent step, usually the converting step. 

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