Thursday, 27 April 2017





  1. Introduction
  2. Stress and Strain Relationships for Elastic Behavior
  3. Elements of the Theory of Plasticity
  4. Plastic Deformation of Single Crystals
  5. Dislocation Theory
  6. Strengthening Mechanisms
  7. Fracture
  8. The Tension Test
  9. The Hardness Test
  10. The Torsion Test
  11. Fracture Mechanics
  12. Fatigue of Metals
  13. Creep and Stress Rupture
  14. Brittle Fracture and Impact Testing
  15. Fundamentals of Metalworking
  16. Forging
  17. Rolling of Metals
  18. Extrusion
  19. Drawing of Rods, Wires, and Tubes
  20. Sheet-Metal Forming
  21. Machining of Metals



Mechanical metallurgy is the area of metallurgy which is concerned primarily with the response of metals to forces or loads. The forces may arise from the use of the
metal as a member or part in a structure or machine, in which case it is necessary to know something about the limiting values which can be withstood without failure. On the other hand, the objective may be to convert a cast ingot into a more useful shape, such as a flat plate, and here it is necessary to know the conditions of temperature and rate of loading which minimize the forces that are needed to do the job. Mechanical metallurgy is not a subject which can be neatly isolated and
studied by itself. It is a combination of many disciplines and many approaches to the problem of understanding the response of materials to forces. On the one hand is the approach used in strength of materials and in the theories of elasticity and plasticity, where a metal is considered to be a homogeneous material whose mechanical behavior can be rather precisely described on the basis of only a very few material constants. This approach is the basis for the rational design of structural members and machine parts. The topics of strength of materials, elasticity, and plasticity are treated in Part One of this book from a more generalized point of view than is usually considered in a first course in strength of materials. The material in Chaps. 1 to 3 can be considered the mathematical framework on which much of the  remainder of the book rests. For students of engineering who have had an advanced course in strength of materials or machine design, it probably will be possible to skim rapidly over these chapters. However, for most students of. metallurgy and for practicing engineers in industry, it is worth spending the time to become familiar with the mathematics presented in Part One.

The theories of strength of materials, elasticity, and plasticity lose much of their power when the structure of the metal becomes an important consideration and it can no longer be considered a homogeneous medium. Examples of this are in the high-temperature behavior of metals, where the metallurgical structure may continuously change with time, or in the ductile-to-brittle transition, which occurs in carbon steel. The determination of the relationship between mechanical behavior and structure (as detected chiefly with microscopic and x-ray techniques) is the main responsibility of the mechanical metallurgist. When mechanical behavior is understood in terms of metallurgical structure, it is generally possible to improve the mechanical properties or at least to control them. Part Two of this book is concerned with the metallurgical fundamentals of the mechanical behavior of metals. Metallurgical students will find that some of the material in Part Two has been covered in a previous course in physical metallurgy, since mechanical metallurgy is part of the broader field of physical metallurgy. However, these subjects are considered in greater detail than is usually the case in a first course in physical metallurgy. In addition, certain topics which pertain more to physical metallurgy than mechanical metallurgy have been included in order to provide continuity and to assist non-metallurgical students who may not have had a course in physical metallurgy.

The last three chapters of Part Two are concerned primarily with atomistic concepts of the flow and fracture of metals. Many of the developments in these areas have been the result of the alliance of the solid-state physicist with the metallurgist. This has been an area of great progress. The introduction of transmission electron microscopy has provided an important experimental tool for verifying theory and guiding analysis. A body of basic dislocation theory is presented which is useful for understanding the mechanical behavior of crystalline solids. Basic data concerning the strength of metals and measurements for the routine control of mechanical properties are obtained from a relatively small number of standardized mechanical tests. Part Three, Applications to Materials Testing, considers each of the common mechanical tests,. not from the usual standpoint of testing techniques, but instead from the consideration of what these tests tell about the service performance of metals and how metallurgical variables affect the results of these tests. Much of the material in Parts One and Two has been utilized in Part Three. It is assumed that the reader either has completed a conventional course in materials testing or will be concurrently taking a laboratory course in which familiarization with the testing techniques will be acquired. Part Four considers the metallurgical and mechanical factors involved in forming metals into useful shapes. Attempts have been made to present mathematical analyses of the principal metalworking processes, although in cert cases this has not been possible, either because of the considerable detail  required or because the analysis is beyond the scope of this book. No attempt has been made to include the extensive specialized technology associated with each metal working process, such as rolling or extrusion, although some effort has been made to give a general impression of the mechanical equipment required and to familiarize the reader with the specialized vocabulary of the metalworking field: Major emphasis has been placed on presenting a fairly simplified picture of the forces involved in each process and of how geometrical and metallurgical factors affect the forming loads and the success of the metalworking process.

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS-BASIC ASSUMPTIONS : Strength of materials is the body of knowledge which deals with the relation between internal forces, deformation, and external loads. In the general method of analysis used in strength of materials the first step is to assume that the member is in equilibrium. The equations of static equilibrium are applied to the forces acting on some part of the body in order to obtain a relationship between the external forces acting on the member and the internal forces resisting the action of the external loads. Since the equations of equilibrium must be expressed in terms of forces acting external to the body, it is necessary to make the internal resisting forces into external forces. This is done by passing a plane through the body at the point of interest. The part of the body lying on one side of the cutting plane is removed and replaced by the forces it exerted on the cut section of the part of the body that remains. Since the forces acting on the "free body" hold it in equilibrium, the equations of equilibrium may be applied to the problem. The internal resisting forces are usually expressed by the stress! acting over a certain area, so that the internal force is the integral of the stress times the differential area over which it acts. In order to evaluate this integral, it is necessary to know the distribution of the stress over the area of the cutting plane. The stress distribution is arrived at by observing and measuring the strain distribution in the member, since stress cannot be physically measured. However, since stress is proportional to strain for the small deformations involved in most work, the determination of the strain distribution provides the stress distribution. The expression for the stress is then substituted into the equations of equilibrium, and they are solved for stress in terms of the loads and dimensions of the member. Important assumptions in strength of materials are that the body which is being analyzed is continuous, homogeneous, and isotropic. A continuous body is one which does not contain voids or empty spaces of any kind. A body is homogeneous if it has identical properties at all points. A body is considered to be isotropic with respect to some property when that property does not vary with
direction or orientation. A property which varies with orientation with respect to some system of axes is said to be anisotropic. 

While engineering materials such as steel, cast iron, and aluminum may appear to meet these conditions when viewed on a gross scale, it is readily apparent when they are viewed through a microscope that they are anything but homogeneous and isotropic. Most engineering metals are made up of more than one phase, with different mechanical properties, such that on a micro scale they are heterogeneous. Further, even a single-phase metal will usually exhibit chemical segregation, and therefore the properties will not be identical from point to point. Metals are made up of an aggregate of crystal grains having different properties in different crystallographic directions. The reason why the equations of strength of materials describe the behavior of real metals is that, in gneral, the crystal grains are so small that, for a specimen of any macroscopic volume, the materials are statistically homogeneous and isotropic. However, when metals are severely deformed in a particular direction, as in rolling or forging, the mechanical properties may be anisotropic on a macro scale. Other examples of anisotropic properties are fiber-reinforced composite materials and single crystals. Lack of continuity may be present in porous castings or powder metallurgy parts and, on an atomic level, at defects such as vacancies and dislocations. 

ELASTIC AND PLASTIC BEHAVIOR : Experience shows that all solid materials can be deformed when subjected to external load. It is further found that up to certain limiting loads a solid will recover its original dimensions when the load is removed. The recovery of the original dimensions of a deformed body when the load is removed is known as elastic behavior. The limiting load beyond which the material no longer behaves elastically is the elastic limit. If the elastic limit is exceeded, the body will experience a permanent set or deformation when the load is removed. A body which is permanently deformed is said to have undergone plastic deformation. For most materials, as long as the load does not exceed the elastic limit, the deformation is proportional to the load. This relationship is known as Hooke's
law; it is more frequently stated as stress is proportional to strain. Hooke's law requires that the load-deformation relationship should be linear. However, it does
not necessarily follow that all materials which behave elastically will have a linear stress-strain relationship. Rubber is an example of a material with a nonlinear
stress-strain relationship that still satisfies the definition of an elastic material. Elastic deformations in metals are quite small and require very sensitive instruments for their measurement. Ultrasensitive instruments have shown that the elastic limits of metals are much lower than the values usually measured in engineering tests of materials. As the measuring devices become more sensitive, the elastic limit is decreased, so that for most metals there is only a rather narrow range of loads over which Hooke's law strictly applies. This is, however, primarily of academic importance. Hooke's law remains a quite valid relationship for engineering design.


The purpose of this chapter is to present the mathematical relationships for expressing the stress and strain at a point and the relationships between stress and
strain in a solid which obeys Hooke's law. While part of the material covered in this chapter is a review of information generally covered in strength of materials,
the subject is extended beyond this point to a consideration of stress and strain in three dimensions. The material included in this chapter is important for an
understanding of most of the phenomenological aspects of mechanical metallurgy, and for this reason it should be given careful attention by those readers to whom
it is unfamiliar. In the space available for this subject it has not been possible to carry it to the point where extensive problem solving is possible. The material
covered here should, however, provide a background for intelligent reading of the more mathematical literature in mechanical metallurgy. It should be recognized that the equations describing the state of stress or strain in a body are applicable to any solid continuum, whether it be an elastic or plastic solid or a viscous fluid. Indeed, this body of knowledge is often called continuum mechanics. The equations relating stress and strain are called constitutive equations because they depend on the material behavior. In this chapter we shall only consider the constitutive equations for an elastic solid. 


Forging is the working of metal into a useful shape by hammering or pressing. It is the oldest of the metalworking arts, having its origin with the primitive blacksmith of Biblical times. The development of machinery to replace the arm of the smith occurred early during the Industrial Revolution. Today there is a wide
variety of forging machinery which is capable of making parts ranging in size from a bolt to a turbine rotor or an entire airplane wing. Most forging operations are carried out hot, although certain metals may be cold-forged. Two major classes of equipment are used for forging operations. The forging hammer, or drop hammer, delivers rapid impact blows to the surface of the metal, while the forging press subjects the metal to a slow-speed compressive force.
The two broad categories of forging processes are open-die forging and closed-die forging. Open-die forging is carried out between fiat dies or dies of very simple shape. The process is used mostly for large objects or when the number of parts produced is small. Often open-die forging is used to preform the workpiece for closed-die forging. In closed-die forging the workpiece is deformed between two die halves which carry the impressions of the desired final shape. The workpiece is deformed under high pressure in a closed cavity, and thus precision forgings with close dimensional tolerances can be produced.